Sobre a Deficiência Visual

Toys for Blind Children


Play houses conceived&executed by girls-Oklahoma School for the Blind-Lewis_Hine-1917


Kids like to play, no matter what their level of abilities. If your child is blind or disabled it may seem a bit harder to choose the perfect toys, but really all you need to do is think about what your child enjoys and use a little common sense.

Tips to Help You Choose the Best Toys

  1. Safety First: Blind babies tend to mouth their toys longer than sighted babies so take this into consideration when choosing toys for your child. Sometimes the age restrictions on a toy may not apply to your baby, so be careful.

  2. Simple is Best: Sometimes the best toys are ones that are very simple. Ivan's favorite toys are his ring, his stacking cups, and his wooden pegs. These are easy for him to manipulate and they are great educational toys. Of course, the simple toys are also the hardest to find!

  3. Think Beyond the Visual: Naturally you'll want to look for toys that make sound, offer interesting textures, or even produce soothing smells. Try to find toys that will entice your child's other senses. If your child does have limited vision, choose high-contrast toys or toys with lights. As far as sounds go, instruments are always a winner!

  4. Beware of Representations: Dolls, stuffed animals, trucks, and other toys that represent other real-life objects can be confusing to a blind child. Be sure to explain that the toy is not a truck, but a toy truck. Don't expect your blind child to play with these toys right away. For example, a little blind girl may take awhile (if ever) to cuddle her plastic "baby" doll because she can't see that it's supposed to represent a baby.

  5. Is it Too Loud? Maybe it's just me, but most toys are way too loud these days. It's as if toy manufacturers want our kids to grow up hearing impaired! Besides looking for quieter toys when shopping, you can also mute loud toys by placing scotch tape or even duct tape over the toy's speaker. If the tape mutes the toy too much, try poking a hole or two through the tape until you find the perfect volume.

  6. Enhance Motor Skills: Many blind children are delayed in gross and fine motor skills. When choosing a toy for your child, try to find something that will encourage them to move in new ways. Do they have to twist or roll to get to the toy? Does it require fine motor hand manipulation? Find toys that can increase your child's skills but aren't too advanced. You don't want to frustrate your little one!

  7. Price: Don't pay too much for a toy. For one thing, you never know how long your child is really going to be interested in it. Also, if the toy seems really beneficial (but really expensive) you may be able to get a charity, like your local Lion's Club, to cover part or all of the cost. Finally, ask your Early Intervention Program if they have the toy on hand. You may be able to borrow the same toy or something similar through their program.


Make Your Own Toy Basket!

All you really need is a basket and some toys and you're well on your way to creating a fun and educational toy for your visually impaired baby.

Here's how to do it... Just fill a small basket with lots of fun, small, safe toys. The tricky part is making the most educational use of the basket. Here are some tips...

  1. When choosing your toys, collect ones that make different sounds, that are interesting to feel, that have different textures (smooth, bumpy, etc), and that are made from different materials (plastic, wood, fabric, etc). Talk to your baby about the different sounds, textures, and materials.

  2. Create concrete names for each toy in the basket. For example, you may include a "ring," a "brush," a "block," and a "rattle." Be very consistent in naming these toys while your baby plays with them. Once your baby becomes familiar with the names you can play a searching game where you ask your baby to locate a particular toy, "Can you find the rattle?" Teach him how to scan through the toys with his hands and how to identify different objects.

  3. Place the basket in front of your baby and encourage her to push or pull the basket. Try to get her to knock the basket over and spill out all the toys!

  4. Place the basket to the right or left of your baby and encourage him to reach to the side. This is a great way to get your baby to rotate their trunk (a skill they'll need in order to crawl). You can also introduce the concepts of "left" and "right."

  5. Baskets are a great way to teach the concepts of "in" and "out." Have your baby take all the toys out of the basket. Then help her put them back in.

  6. As your baby gets older, you can introduce sorting games with the toy basket. Have your child pull out all of the different balls or all of the rings and sort them.

  7. Turn the basket over. Now you can talk about how the toys are under the basket.

  8. The best thing about Ivan's toy basket is that it keeps him occupied for quite a while (while mom gets a chance to wash the dishes or fold the laundry). This is by far Ivan's favorite toy. We have set toys that are always in the basket (like his ring), but we also add new toys now and then. It's a great way to play, learn, and get in some independent time, too!


Make Your Own Scented Rattle!

It's so easy to make a rattle for your baby that also has its own unique smell. Teach your baby about cause and effect with the sound while you teach them about scents too! Here's the simple how-to...

What You'll Need:

  • small juice bottles

  • hammer and nail

  • scents (like cloves or cinnamon sticks)

  • bells (optional)

Making Your Scented Rattle

  1. Clean and remove label from a small juice bottle.

  2. Poke holes using your hammer and nail in the lid.

  3. Fill your rattle about 1/4 full with cloves or cinnamon sticks. You're done!

Making Scents: You can also buy extracts (like vanilla, orange, or almond), dab them on a cotton swab, and place in the rattle with a couple of small bells. Just remember, whatever you decide to put in your rattle should be non-toxic because, as your baby chews and plays with the rattle, they'll drool into the holes and may suck the juices back out. This is also why you'll need to periodically clean your rattle and re-fill it with new scents.


Make Your Own Sensory Play Area

You've probably seen those play gyms for babies that hang toys above your child as she lays on her back. These are great toys that encourage reaching and an understanding of object permanence. But what if you could design your own play area that would stimulate your baby's senses and make them feel safe and willing to explore at the same time?

You could try building your very own Sensory Play Area. We'll tell you what it is, how it works, and how to make one. We'll answer all your questions and take you through the building process step-by-step...

What is a sensory play area?

The sensory play area is essentially a large box, often made out of PVC and peg board, in which small objects dangle from the lid so that the baby, when placed in the box on his back, can grab and play with the objects. The main concept is that this is a space where the baby feels comfortable and where he feels that he is in control. The baby can manipulate the toys and other objects and his voice will sound louder and different in the confined space.

The rules to the play area are simple:

  • leave baby alone in the play area so he can learn about it himself

  • keep the objects in the same place so that your baby will be comfortable and the space will be predictable

  • use elastic to hang the objects so your baby can reach for an object, play with it, and then let it return to its position

  • you can also attach textured fabrics, other materials, or even lights to the walls of your play area

What is it for?

The sensory play area is designed to...

  • encourage reaching

  • teach spatial awareness

  • improve muscle tone in arms

  • encourage vocalization

  • teach object permanence

  • teach babies that they can manipulate their environment, rather than wait to be manipulated by adults

And the sensory play area really does work! Here is a list of firsts our son Ivan accomplished in his play area...

  • first time he vocalized and babbled consistently

  • first time he reached for an object after hearing it make a sound

  • first time he reached for an object without hearing a sound (he just knew it was there)

  • first time he pushed himself up while laying on his belly

  • first time he rolled over

  • first time he rolled over consecutively

  • first time he rolled over with purpose to reach an object (on the other side of the play area)

What do I put in my play area?

Any household objects can work in a sensory play area, from soup spoons to slinkys. Items in the play area should...

  • be of pleasure to the baby

  • be graspable

  • have tactile and auditory qualities

  • vary in weight and temperature

  • take into account the senses of smell and taste

  • be visually inspiring (if your baby has any sight)

  • inspire to play counting games

  • be changeable in shape

  • be comparable

Here are some tips:

  1. Think beyond simply hanging baby toys in your child's play area. When you do use toys, don't just use plastic ones; try hanging a metal slinky next to a plastic one so your baby can compare "alike but different" objects and learn to make his own comparisons. Also, blind babies are sensitive to the different temperatures of plastic vs. metal (warm vs. cold), and they find it interesting to compare the temperatures of both items!

  2. Leave a little room between the hanging objects so your child doesn't become overwhelmed.

  3. A small bottle brush that has been wet slightly is awesome - when your baby touches it or flicks it, a light spritz of water will gently mist him! Eventually, you can put the dangling bottle brush in a small baby bottle so that he can learn how to put things in and take things out, but don't forget to keep the brush slightly wet so he gets the misting effect!

  4. Krinkly gold metallic tissue paper is great fun! We bunch it up and tie elastic to the bunch.

  5. If your child has light perception, string Christmas lights throughout the play area. Begin playing with the lights off. Then tell your baby that you're about to turn the lights on and watch their face light up as the twinkly lights fill up the room!


Make Your Own Can Puzzle!

If your child struggles with fine motor skills, it can be hard for them to grasp a block and drop it in a hole. Here is an easy project that will help them learn this skill with only one shape and one hole!

Learning to sort shapes and drop blocks into their corresponding holes is a skill that most children work on during their toddler years. There are many commercial toys designed to teach this skill.

But have you ever noticed that these toys just keep getting more and more complicated? If your child has a vision impairment or struggles with fine motor skills, it can be hard enough for them to grasp a block and drop it in a hole without also having to decide which hole is the proper one!

The solution to this problem is simple...make your own puzzle with only one shape and one hole!

This is an easy project that will take you only minutes. Here's the simple how-to...

What You'll Need:

  • Small can with a plastic lid

  • Toy blocks

  • Marker

  • Scissors

Making Your Can Puzzle

  1. Clean your can and remove the lid.

  2. Using your block as a template, mark out the shape of the block on the lid of the can. It's a good idea to start with a circle because that's the easiest shape.

  3. Cut out the shape and place the lid back on the can. You're done!

Now with only one shape to worry about, your child can focus on learning how to hold the block, find the can, and place the block in the hole.

Encourage your child to use both hands so they can learn to hold the block in one hand and use the other to find the hole. This technique of using one hand to guide the other is actually an important pre-braille skill!

Once your child has mastered circles, move on to squares, and then triangles. Once you're feeling confident with those three shapes, get a bigger can and try a two-shape puzzle. Now your child will have to decide which shape fits which hole.

This is a great way to take a concept all kids are working on and make it a bit easier so your child can work on it in stages and be more successful!

Safety Tip: If the edges of your cut-out are too sharp, you can line them with duct tape. This may be an issue with shapes that have corners, like squares and triangles.


Make Your Own Touch Book!

Ivan received a wonderful gift from his Aunty Cori... His very own Touch Book! Since Ivan is blind and interacts with his environment predominantly through touch and sound, Aunty Cori decided to put together a book of textures for him to feel. You can make your own touch book, too. It's easy and fun and can be a great gift for a visually impaired child... or anyone!

What You'll Need:

  • thick pieces of cardboard cut into 14 cm x 16 cm

  • hole punch

  • three key-rings

  • different textured materials, etc

  • glue

  • permanent marker

Putting Your Touch Book Together

Begin by collecting different textures from around the house. Materials like velvet or cordoroy are fun. Leather, sandpaper, feathers, bubble wrap, double-sided tape, or sponges all make intersting feelings, too.

Glue each texture to a piece of cardboard. Name the textures using a permanent marker and add Braille, too.

Finally, punch holes in your pages and clip together with key-rings. You're Done!

A Fun Twist...

Try making a Noise Book along with your Touch Book. Use the same techniques as above, but fill your pages with things that make sounds when you touch them, like bells, sticks that can be hit together, bags full of beans, etc.

You're only limited by your imagination!



More examples here.
in http://www.wonderbaby.org/articles/toy-guide.html


publicado por MJA